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托福阅读难句专业翻译讲解

 托福阅读中也会出现一些考研大家的托福阅读难句,遇到这些句子的时候,要在平时新托福阅读中注意积累,觉得用得到的要记下来,以下总结的托福阅读中的几个高难度句,希望对大家的托福阅读考试有帮助。

  “Sociologists have built on the distinction between expressive and instrumental ties to distinguish between two types of groups: primary and secondary. A primary group involves two or more people who enjoy a direct, intimate, cohesive relationship with one another. Expressive ties predominate in primary groups; we view the people as ends in themselves and valuable in their own right. A secondary group entails two or more people who are involved in an impersonal relationship and have come together for a specific, practical purpose. Instrumental ties predominate in secondary groups; we perceive people as means to ends rather than as ends in their own right. Sometimes primary group relationships evolve out of secondary group relationships.“

  很多同学,看到上面的“we view the people as ends in themselves”和“we perceive people as means to ends”就彻底晕菜了。这个其实是可以理解的,这两句话实际是哲学家Kant(康德)关于道德的哲学思想。我们先来看看康德是怎么说的:

  Humanity

  According to Kant, there are different ways to state what our duty is. One of them involves the idea of a law. Another involves the idea of humanity, or human reason. Morality says that you should never treat rational human beings merely as means to your end. Whenever you use someone’s skills or services to your own end, you should always also treat that person as an end in him- or herself.

  翻译:康德认为,有不同的方式来陈述我们的职责。其中一个是涉及法律。另外一个是涉及人性和人道。道德论认为,你永远不应该把一个理性的人只是作为你达到你的目的中间手段。当你用其他的服务和技能作为你达到你的目的是,你应该尊重他们作为个体而不是你的手段而已。

  分析:这里的mean实际上是一个途径,一个中间过程。如果我们把他人视为达成某种目标的中间途径,那就不是道德的。end在这里是终点,自身的结果。只有把他人视为end才是尊重别人才是道德的。

  其实这个道理很简单。就是我们常说的:不已结婚为目的谈恋爱都是耍流氓。你不已结婚为目的,就是把女孩当成means了,所以很不道德。你如果是以结婚为目的话,就是当成ends了。

  以上就是非常有难度的一些托福阅读难句,以及附上他们的中文翻译。从这些翻译中我们解读托福阅读难句的结构和语法知识,从而了解托福阅读的一些难点,希望同学们能够顺利掌

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